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active listening

the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages

affective domain

sphere of functioning or performance that has to do with attitudes and emotions

argument essay

an analytic or interpretative literary composition usually dealing with its subject from a limited or personal point of view, and intended to persuade


the person whose performance, work product, or learning skill(s) is being assessed

assessment language

use of language which is focused upon helping to improve performance rather than judging it; assessment language focuses upon the process of performance rather than an end product (for example, “weakness” is judgmental, while “area for improvement” is assessment language which is focused upon improving the performance)


a process of determining the quality of a performance, work product, or skill and giving feedback that documents progress (strengths) and suggests ways to improve future performance (areas for improvement) in ways that will help the performer improve his or her future performance


the person who is giving assessment feedback


a fact, statement, or proposition taken for granted as being true


a descriptor that helps to define what is meant by a particular performance criterion by identifying a distinguishing characteristic associated with the performance


a group problem-solving technique that involves the spontaneous contribution of ideas from all members of the group


attribution of information to a source


a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior


the interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs; environment, setting


a standard on which an assessment, evaluation, or measurement may be based (plural: criteria)

critical reflection

a thought or opinion resulting from careful, consideration; an opportunity to consider the implications of new knowledge


a condition where one’s attention is easily drawn away or diverted from one object or situation to another


a condition where the whole is comprised of individuals which are distinct, unlike, or have differing qualities


authentication of information; written evidence


to alter, adapt, or refine especially to bring about conformity to a standard or to suit a particular purpose


productivity without waste of time or resources


a process for determining the quality of a performance that takes a retrospective look at a given process, program, or individual, and based upon pre-established standards, decides its utility, its value, or its applicability

general education

the essential skills, processes, methodologies, tools, contexts, and ways of being that are common across all disciplines; these contribute to learner growth and improvement, as opposed to the gaining of expertise within a discipline


to draw a conclusion based upon particulars; an indefinite statement

higher education

education provided by a college or university


facts, data (words, numbers and symbols), lore, news, intelligence, something told or read


coordinating or blending into a functioning or unified whole


to temporarily stop a process or course of events in order to resolve a problem related to the process or course of events

key issues

important issues surrounding a problem; identification of key issues can lead to stronger and more comprehensive solutions (“Identify Key Issues” is Step 2 of the Problem Solving Methodology)


sensory experience based upon bodily movement and tension


awareness about, insights gained as a result of, or conclusions drawn from the possession of information

learning activity

The core unit of instructional design which organizes a unit of time, in or out of class, to address a subset of course learning outcomes

learning community

formal and informal groups who share common values and beliefs and who voluntarily invest time to work together, and actively engage in learning together

Learning Process Methodology (LPM)

a sequence of steps for learners that makes explicit the working habits of expert learners

learning skills

skills employed in the process of learning, embedded in a learner’s behavioral repertoire, and transferable across disciplines and contexts, which enable him or her to improve mastery of subject matter. They are essential for constructing knowledge because they influence what learners can achieve at any level. These skills can be consciously improved and refined, increasing the rate and effectiveness of learning.

learning style

automatic, habitual patterns of learning or processing preferences which are based on habituation of routines and which are acquired over a learner’s entire lifetime

level of learning

categorization of educational objectives to represent the increasing complexity in the way learners formulate, connect, and present their thoughts (information, conceptual understanding, application, working expertise, and research)

Life Vision Portfolio

a collection of written work documenting the thinking process involved in developing one’s own life vision, or image of what one would like one’s future self and situation to be


a subject of academic study chosen as a field of specialization


the documenting of a performance or product against a scale


to commit to memory; learn by heart


one who guides another person in efforts to improve


an explicitly defined set of multi-step instructions for performing a complex process, designed to enable those who are novices in a skill area to work smarter without having to learn the steps through trial and error

multiple intelligence

a theory by Howard Gardner that rejects the notion of intelligence as measured by IQ tests and instead advances the idea that people have different way of learning, based upon how they individually process information

peer assessment

an assessment performed by an individual sharing the same context; peer assessments are usually mutual, with each party assessing for the other


the means by which one produces valued results


to use another’s work, writing, research, etc., without crediting the source

primary source

documentation of information created either during events or shortly thereafter, generally by a person who has direct knowledge and experience of the events (contrast with secondary source; an example of a primary source might be, Grandma Had Big Teeth, by Little Red Riding Hood)


to rate or list projects, tasks, or goals in order of which should be given attention before alternatives


a question, matter, situation, issue, or person that is perplexing, thought provoking, or difficult to deal with

Process Education

A performance-based philosophy of education which integrates many different educational theories, processes, and tools in emphasizing the continuous development of learning skills through the use of assessment principles in order to produce learner self-development


intentionally delaying doing something that should be done

psychomotor domain

sphere of functioning or performance that has to do with motor skills

reading log

a tool used to help a reader focus upon using the Reading Methodology as a way to assess and improve reading skills

reading methodology

a six-step model for optimally learning from written information.


to look over again in order to correct or improve


a scoring tool for measuring the level of performance achieved which describes in words what performance looks like at various levels


a means in measurement for determining the quality or quantity of evidence


a plan that shows the time, order, and sometimes duration of tasks or engagements

secondary source

a work that interprets or analyzes information that appears elsewhere (contrast with primary source; an example of a secondary source might be, Stating the Obvious But Still Missing the Point: An Analysis of Little Red Riding Hood, by John Wolf, Jr.)


to fully realize one’s potential


assessing one’s own progress and performance by thinking critically about it for the purpose of growth


having developed strong performance/learning skills, self-growers continually use strong self-assessment skills to improve future performance


the study of meaning in language

SII Assessment

a method of recording and reporting assessment findings which includes a description of the strengths of the performance (including why these are strengths), the areas in which the performance may be improved (including how to implement improvement), and insights for application in other settings


a smaller problem that is contained within a larger problem and may be modeled or solved somewhat independently, with its solution contributing to the solution of the larger problem


the grammatical structure of a language


relating to the sense of touch


a piece of work (often that must be finished within a set amount of time)


the joint action by a group of people in which individual interests become secondary to the achievement of group goals, unity and efficiency


the technical or special terms used in a field of study


a condition where immediate attention is required


the act of using alternative methods to test results

value system

the base from which one works after one’s core values have been clearly defined, prioritized, and integrated into one’s plans and actions; the system represents the fundamental beliefs and ideas that serve as personal criteria for choosing among alternatives

Writing Methodology

a 10-step model which breaks down the process of writing (creating formal written information and communication) into smaller steps or stages where the focus is not on the fi nal product, but upon what you think and do in creating the final product